The UserIdentityTokenstructure used in the Server Service Setallows Clientsto specify the identity of the user they are acting on behalf of. The exact mechanism used to identify users depends on the system configuration. The different types of identity tokens are based on the most common mechanisms that are used in systems today. Table 185defines the current set of user identity tokens. The ExtensibleParametertype is defined in 7.17.

Table 185– UserIdentityToken parameterTypeIds

Symbolic Id

Description

AnonymousIdentityToken

No user information is available.

UserNameIdentityToken

A user identified by user name and password.

X509IdentityToken

A user identified by an X.509 v3 Certificate.

IssuedIdentityToken

A user identified by a token issued by an external Authorization Service.

The Clientshall always prove possession of a UserIdentityToken when it passes it to the Server. Some tokens include a secret such as a password which the Serverwill accept as proof. In order to protect these secrets, the Tokenmay be encrypted before it is passed to the Server. Other types of tokens allow the Clientto create a signature with the secret associated with the Token. In these cases, the Clientproves possession of a UserIdentityToken by creating a signature with the secret and passing it to the Server.

Each UserIdentityTokenallowed by an Endpointshall have a UserTokenPolicyspecified in the EndpointDescription. The UserTokenPolicyspecifies what SecurityPolicyto use when encrypting or signing. If this SecurityPolicyis null or empty then the Clientuses the SecurityPolicyin the EndpointDescription. If the matching SecurityPolicyis set to Nonethen no encryption or signature is required. The possible SecurityPoliciesare defined in OPC 10000-7.

It is recommended that applications never set the SecurityPolicyto Nonefor UserIdentityTokensthat include a secret because these secrets could be used by an attacker to gain access to the system.

Clientsshall validate the Server Certificateand ensure it is trusted before sending a UserIdentityTokenencrypted with the Certificate.

The encrypted secret and Signatureare embedded in a ByteStringwhich is part of the UserIdentityToken. The format of this ByteStringdepends on the type of UserIdentityTokenand the SecurityPolicy. Clientsshall validate the Server Certificateand ensure it is trusted before sending a UserIdentityTokenencrypted with the Certificate.

The legacy token secret format defined in 7.41.2.2is not extensible and provides only encryption but the encrypted data is not signed. It is used together with the USERNAME UserIdentityToken. The password secret exchanged with this format shall not exceed 64 bytes.

The EncryptedSecretformat defined in 7.41.2.3provides an extensible secret format together with the definition how the secret is signed and encrypted. It allows for the layout to be updated as new token types are defined or new SecurityPoliciesare added.

The UserIdentityTokentypes and the token formats supported by the Endpointare identified by the UserTokenPolicydefined in 7.42.

To prevent the leakage of information useful to attackers, Serversshall ensure that the process of validating UserIdentityTokenscompletes in a fixed interval independent of whether an error occurs or not. The process of validation includes decrypting, check for padding and checking for a valid nonce. If any errors occur the return code is Bad_IdentityTokenInvalid.

Serversshall log details of any failure to validate a UserIdentityToken and shall lock out Clientapplications after five failures.

When encrypting a UserIdentityToken, the Clientappends the last ServerNonceto the secret. The data is then encrypted with the public key from the Server’s Certificate.

A Clientshould not add any padding after the secret. If a Clientadds padding then all bytes shall be zero. A Servershall check for padding added by Clientsand ensure that all padding bytes are zeros. Serversshall reject UserIdentityTokens with invalid padding. Administrators shall be able to configure Serversto accept UserIdentityTokens with invalid padding.

If no encryption is applied, the structure is not used and only the secret without any Nonceis passed to the Server.

Table 186describes how to serialize UserIdentityTokensbefore applying encryption.

Table 186– Legacy UserIdentityToken Encrypted Token Secret Format

Name

Type

Description

Length

Byte [4]

The length of the data to be encrypted including the ServerNoncebut excluding the lengthfield.

This field is a 4-byte unsigned integer encoded with the least significant bytes appearing first.

tokenData

Byte [*]

The token data.

serverNonce

Byte [*]

The last ServerNoncereturned by the Serverin the CreateSessionor ActivateSessionresponse.

The EncryptedSecretuses an extensible format which has the TypeIdof a DataType Nodeas a prefix as defined for the ExtensionObjectencoding in OPC 10000-6. The general layout of the EncryptedSecretis shown in Figure 39.

image042.png

Figure 39– EncryptedSecret layout

The TypeIdspecifies how the EncryptedSecretis serialized and secured. For example, the RsaEncryptedSecretrequires that the KeyDatabe encrypted with the public key associated with the EncryptingCertificatebefore it is serialized.

The SecurityPolicyUriis used to determine what algorithms were used to encrypt and sign the data. Valid SecurityPolicyUris are defined in OPC 10000-7.

The payload is always encrypted using the symmetric encryption algorithm specified by the SecurityPolicyUri. The KeyDatais used to create the keys used needed for the symmetric encryption. The structure of the KeyDatadepends on the EncryptedSecret DataType.

The EncryptedSecretis secured and serialized as follows:

  • Serialize the common header;
  • Serialize the KeyData;
  • If required, encrypt the KeyData and append the result to the common header;
  • Update the KeyDataLength with the length of the encrypted KeyData;
  • Append the Nonce and the Secret to the encrypted KeyData;
  • Calculate padding required on the payload and append after the Secret;
  • Encrypt the payload;
  • Calculate a Signature;
  • Append the Signature.

Individual fields are serialized using the UA Binary encoding (see OPC 10000-6) for the DataTypespecified in Table 187. The Paddingis used to ensure there is enough data to fill an integer multiple of encryption blocks. The size of the encryption block depends on the encryption algorithm. The total length of the Padding, not including the PaddingSize, is encoded as a UInt16. The individual bytes of the Paddingare set to the the least significant byte of the PaddingSize.

The EncryptedSecret is deserilized and validated as follows:

  • Deserialize the common header;
  • Verify the Signature if the KeyData is not encrypted;
  • Decrypt the KeyData and verify the Signature if the KeyData is encrypted;
  • Decrypt the payload;
  • Verify the padding on the payload;
  • Extract the Secret;

The fields in the EncryptedSecretare described in Table 187. The first three fields TypeId, EncodingMaskand Lengthbelong to the ExtensionObjectencoding defined in OPC 10000-6.

Table 187– EncryptedSecret layout

Name

Type

Description

TypeId

NodeId

The NodeIdof the DataType Node.

EncodingMask

Byte

This value is always 1.

Length

Int32

The length of the data that follows including the Signature.

SecurityPolicyUri

String

The URI for the SecurityPolicyused to apply security.

Certificate

ByteString

The signing and/or encrypting Certificate.

SigningTime

DateTime

When the Signaturewas created.

KeyDataLength

UInt16

The length, in bytes, of the KeyDatathat follows

If the KeyDatais encrypted this is the length of the encrypted data;

Otherwise, it is the length of the unencrypted data.

KeyData

Byte [*]

The key data used to create the keys needed for decrypting and verifying the payload. Each EncryptedSecret DataTypedescribes how the key data is structured for different SecurityPolicies.

Nonce

ByteString

This is the last serverNoncereturned in the CreateSessionor ActivateSession Responsewhen a UserIdentityTokenis passed with the ActivateSession Request.

If used outside of an ActivateSession call, the Nonceis created by the sender and is a function of the SecureChannelNonceLength.

Secret

ByteString

The secret to protect.

The passwordwhen used with UserNameIdentityTokens.

The tokenDatawhen used with IssuedIdentityTokens.

If the Secretis a Stringis it encoded using UTF-8 first.

PayloadPadding

Byte[*]

Additional padding added to ensure the size of the encrypted payload is an integer multiple of the input block size for the symmetric encryption algorithm specified by the SecurityPolicyUri.

The value of each byte is the least significant byte of the PayloadPaddingSize.

PayloadPaddingSize

UInt16

The size of the padding added to the payload.

Signature

Byte[*]

The Signaturecalculated after all encryption is applied.

Each EncryptedSecret DataTypedescribes how the Signatureis calculated for different SecurityPolicies.

The PayloadPaddingSize adjusted with the following formula:

If (Secret.Length + PayloadPaddingSize < InputBlockSize) Then

PayloadPaddingSize = PayloadPaddingSize + InputBlockSize

Where the InputBlockSize is specified by the SymmetricEncryptionAlgorithm.

The currently available EncryptedSecret DataTypesare defined in Table 188.

Table 188– EncryptedSecret DataTypes

Type Name

When to Use

RsaEncryptedSecret

Used when the SecurityPolicyrequires the use of RSA cryptography. It is described in 7.41.2.4.

EccEncryptedSecret

Used when the SecurityPolicyrequires the use of ECC cryptography.It is described in .

The RsaEncryptedSecretuses RSA based Asymmetric Cryptography.

Additional semantics for the fields in the EncryptedSecretlayout for the RsaEncryptedSecret Structureare described in Table 189.

Table 189– RsaEncryptedSecret structure

Name

Type

Description

TypeId

NodeId

The NodeIdof the RsaEncryptedSecret DataType Node.

EncodingMask

Byte

See Table 187.

Length

UInt32

See Table 187.

SecurityPolicyUri

String

See Table 187.

Certificate

ByteString

The SHA1 hash of the DER form of the Certificate used to encrypt the KeyData.

SigningTime

DateTime

See Table 187.

KeyDataLength

UInt16

The length, in bytes, of the encrypted KeyData.

KeyData

The KeyDatais encrypted with the PublicKeyassociated with the Certificate.

SigningKey

ByteString

The key used to compute the Signature.

EncryptingKey

ByteString

The key used to encrypt payload.

InitializationVector

ByteString

The initialization vector used with the EncryptingKey.

Nonce

ByteString

A Nonce. This is the last ServerNoncereturned in the CreateSessionor ActivateSession Responsewhen proving a UserIdentityTokenpassed in the ActivateSession Request. In other contexts, this is a Noncecreated by the sender with a length equal to the SecureChannelNonceLength.

Secret

ByteString

See Table 187.

PayloadPadding

Byte[*]

See Table 187.

PayloadPaddingSize

UInt16

See Table 187.

Signature

Byte[*]

The Signaturecalculated with the SigningKey.

The Signaturecalculated is calculated after encrypting the KeyDataand the payload.

The EccEncryptedSecretuses ECC based Asymmetric Cryptography.

Additional semantics for the fields in the EncryptedSecretlayout for the EccEncryptedSecretStructure are described in Table 190.

The EccEncryptedSecretuses ECC EphemeralKeysto create the symmetric key used to encrypt the Secret. The handshake required to create and use the EphemeralKeysis described in OPC 10000-6.

Table 190– EccEncryptedSecret Layout

Name

Type

Description

TypeId

NodeId

The NodeIdof the EccEncryptedSecret DataType Node.

EncodingMask

Byte

See Table 187

Length

UInt32

See Table 187

SecurityPolicyUri

String

See Table 187

Certificate

ByteString

The signing Certificateencoded in DER form.

The value shall include the entire chain.

This value may be null or empty if the SigningCertificateis known to the receiver. This is true if the structure is used to provide a UserIdentityTokento a Serverover a SecureChanneland the SigningCertificateis the Client ApplicationInstance Certificate.

SigningTime

DateTime

See Table 187

KeyDataLength

UInt16

The length of the KeyDatawithout encryption.

KeyData

The KeyDatais not encrypted.

SenderPublicKey

ByteString

The Public Keyfor the EphemeralKeycreated by the sender.

ReceiverPublicKey

ByteString

The Public Keyfor the EphemeralKeycreated by the receiver.

Nonce

ByteString

A Nonce. This is the last ServerNoncereturned in the CreateSessionor ActivateSession Responsewhen proving a UserIdentityTokenpassed in the ActivateSession Request. In other contexts, this is a Noncecreated by the sender with a length equal to the ½ of the SecureChannelNonceLength.

Secret

ByteString

See Table 187

PayloadPadding

Byte [*]

See Table 187

PayloadPaddingSize

UInt16

See Table 187

Signature

Byte [*]

The Signaturecalculated with the PrivateKeyof the signing Certificate.

The Signaturecalculated is calculated after encrypting the payload.

The AnonymousIdentityToken is used to indicate that the Clienthas no user credentials.

Table 191defines the AnonymousIdentityTokenparameter.

Table 191– AnonymousIdentityToken

Name

Type

Description

AnonymousIdentityToken

Structure

An anonymous user identity.

policyId

String

An identifier for the UserTokenPolicythat the token conforms to.

The UserTokenPolicystructure is defined in 7.42.

The UserNameIdentityTokenis used to pass simple username/password credentials to the Server.

This token shall be encrypted by the Clientif required by the SecurityPolicyof the UserTokenPolicy. The Servershould specify a SecurityPolicyfor the UserTokenPolicyif the SecureChannelhas a SecurityPolicyof Noneand no transport layer encryption is available. If Noneis specified for the UserTokenPolicyand SecurityPolicyis None then the password only contains the UTF-8 encoded password. The SecurityPolicyof the SecureChannelis used if no SecurityPolicyis specified in the UserTokenPolicy. The Servershall specify a SecurityPolicyfor the UserTokenPolicyif the SecureChannelhas a SecurityPolicyother than None and theMessageSecurityModeis not SIGNANDENCRYPT. See Table 193for possible combinations.

If the token is to be encrypted the password shall be converted to a UTF-8 ByteString, encryptedand then serialized according to the rules for the SecurityPolicy. When using an RSA based SecurityPolicythe password is encrypted and serialized as described in 7.41.2.4. When using the ECC based SecurityPoliciesthe password is encrypted and serialized as described in 7.41.2.5..

The Servershall decrypt the password and verify the ServerNonce.

If the SecurityPolicyis Nonethen the password only contains the UTF-8 encoded password. This configuration should not be used unless the network traffic is encrypted in some other manner such as a VPN. The use of this configuration without network encryption would result in a serious security fault, in that it would cause the appearance of a secure user access, but it would make the password visible in clear text.

Table 192defines the UserNameIdentityTokenparameter.

Table 192– UserNameIdentityToken

Name

Type

Description

UserNameIdentityToken

Structure

UserName value.

policyId

String

An identifier for the UserTokenPolicythat the token conforms to.

The UserTokenPolicystructure is defined in 7.42.

userName

String

A string that identifies the user.

password

ByteString

The password for the user. The password can be an empty string.

The format used for the encrypted data is described in 7.41.2.2.

encryptionAlgorithm

String

A string containing the URI of the AsymmetricEncryptionAlgorithm.

The URI string values are defined names that may be used as part of the security profiles specified in OPC 10000-7.

This parameter is null or empty if the password is not encrypted.

Table 193describes the dependencies for selecting the AsymmetricEncryptionAlgorithmfor the UserNameIdentityToken. The SecureChannel SecurityPolicyURI is specified in the EndpointDescriptionand used in subsequent OpenSecureChannel requests. The UserTokenPolicy SecurityPolicyURI is specified in the EndpointDescription. The encryptionAlgorithmis specified in the UserNameIdentityTokenor IssuedIdentityTokenprovided by the Clientin the ActivateSessioncall. The SecurityPolicyOther in the table refers to any SecurityPolicyother than None. The selection of the EncryptionAlgorithmis based on the UserTokenPolicy. The SecureChannel SecurityPolicyis used if the UserTokenPolicyis null or empty.

Table 193– EncryptionAlgorithm selection

SecureChannel

SecurityPolicy

SecureChannel

SecurityMode

UserTokenPolicy

SecurityPolicy

UserIdentityToken EncryptionAlgorithm

Security Policy - None

NONE

Null or empty

No encryption (a)

Security Policy - None

NONE

Security Policy - None

No encryption (a)

Security Policy - None

NONE

Security Policy - Other

Asymmetric algorithm for "Other"

Security Policy - Other

Other than NONE

Null or empty

Asymmetric algorithm for "Other"

Security Policy - Other

Other than NONE

Security Policy - Yet another

Asymmetric algorithm for "Yet another"

Security Policy - Other

Other than NONE

Security Policy - Other

Asymmetric algorithm for "Other"

Security Policy - Other

SIGNANDENCRYPT

Security Policy - None

No encryption but encrypted SecureChannel

Security Policy - Other

SIGN

Security Policy - None

Invalid configuration shall be rejected.

(a)The use of this configuration without network encryption would result in a serious security fault.

The X509IdentityToken is used to pass an X.509 v3 Certificatewhich is issued by the user.

This token shall always be accompanied by a Signaturein the userTokenSignatureparameter of ActivateSessionif required by the SecurityPolicy. The Servershould specify a SecurityPolicyfor the UserTokenPolicyif the SecureChannelhas a SecurityPolicyof None.

Table 194defines the X509IdentityToken parameter.

Table 194– X.509 v3 Identity Token

Name

Type

Description

X509IdentityToken

structure

X.509 v3 value.

policyId

String

An identifier for the UserTokenPolicythat the token conforms to.

The UserTokenPolicystructure is defined in 7.42.

certificateData

ByteString

The X.509 v3 Certificatein DER format.

The IssuedIdentityTokenis used to pass SecurityTokens issued by an external Authorization Serviceto the Server. These tokens may be text or binary.

OAuth2 defines a standard for Authorization Servicesthat produce JSON Web Tokens (JWT). These JWTs are passed as an Issued Tokento an OPC UA Serverwhich uses the signature contained in the JWT to validate the token. OPC 10000-6describes OAuth2 and JWTs in more detail. If the token is encrypted, it shall use the EncryptedSecretformat defined in 7.41.2.3.

This token shall be encrypted by the Clientif required by the SecurityPolicyof the UserTokenPolicy. The Servershould specify a SecurityPolicyfor the UserTokenPolicyif the SecureChannelhas a SecurityPolicyof None and no transport layer encryption is available. The SecurityPolicyof the SecureChannelis used If no SecurityPolicyis specified in the UserTokenPolicy.

If the SecurityPolicyis not None, the tokenDatashall be encoded in UTF-8 (if it is not already binary), signed and encryptedaccording the rules specified for the tokenTypeof the associated UserTokenPolicy(see 7.42).

If the SecurityPolicyis Nonethen the tokenDataonly contains the UTF-8 encoded tokenData. This configuration should not be used unless the network is encrypted in some other manner such as a VPN. The use of this configuration without network encryption would result in a serious security fault, in that it would cause the appearance of a secure user access, but it would make the token visible in clear text.

Table 195defines the IssuedIdentityTokenparameter.

Table 195– IssuedIdentityToken

Name

Type

Description

IssuedIdentityToken

structure

The token provided by an Authorization Service.

policyId

String

An identifier for the UserTokenPolicythat the token conforms to.

The UserTokenPolicystructure is defined in 7.42.

tokenData

ByteString

The text or binary representation of the token.

The format of the data depends on the associated UserTokenPolicy.

encryptionAlgorithm

String

The URI of the AsymmetricEncryptionAlgorithm.

The list of OPC UA-defined names that may be used is specified in OPC 10000-7.

See Table 193for details on picking the correct URI.

This parameter is null or empty if the tokenDatais not encrypted or if the EncryptedSecretformat is used.