This Service is used for two purposes. First, it is used to acknowledge the receipt of NotificationMessages for one or more Subscriptions. Second, it is used to request the Server to return a NotificationMessage or a keep-alive Message. Since Publish requests are not directed to a specific Subscription, they may be used by any Subscription. 220.127.116.11 describes the use of the Publish Service.
Client strategies for issuing Publish requests may vary depending on the networking delays between the Client and the Server. In many cases, the Client may wish to issue a Publish request immediately after creating a Subscription, and thereafter, immediately after receiving a Publish response.
In other cases, especially in high latency networks, the Client may wish to pipeline Publish requests to ensure cyclic reporting from the Server. Pipelining involves sending more than one Publish request for each Subscription before receiving a response. For example, if the network introduces a delay between the Client and the Server of 5 seconds and the publishing interval for a Subscription is one second, then the Client will have to issue Publish requests every second instead of waiting for a response to be received before sending the next request.
A Server should limit the number of active Publish requests to avoid an infinite number since it is expected that the Publish requests are queued in the Server. But a Server shall accept more queued Publish requests than created Subscriptions. It is expected that a Server supports several Publish requests per Subscription. When a Server receives a new Publish request that exceeds its limit it shall de-queue the oldest Publish request and return a response with the result set to Bad_TooManyPublishRequests. If a Client receives this Service result for a Publish request it shall not issue another Publish request before one of its outstanding Publish requests is returned from the Server.
Clients can limit the size of Publish responses with the maxNotificationsPerPublish parameter passed to the CreateSubscription Service. However, this could still result in a message that is too large for the Client or Server to process. In this situation, the Client will find that either the SecureChannel goes into a fault state and needs to be re-established or the Publish response returns an error and calling the Republish Service also returns an error. If either situation occurs then the Client will have to adjust its message processing limits or the parameters for the Subscription and/or MonitoredItems.
The return diagnostic info setting in the request header of the CreateMonitoredItems or the last ModifyMonitoredItems Service is applied to the Monitored Items and is used as the diagnostic information settings when sending Notifications in the Publish response.