See 4.3.13for a description of this threat.

OPC UA Client andServer applications counter Repudiationby the signing of Messages that are specified in OPC 10000-4. A signed message indicates that the message originated from the owner of the private key. During OpenSecureChanneland Sessionestablishment the communicating parties are clearly identified and confirmed. Lastly Auditingas described in OPC 10000-4will track the information associated with the message.